Risk Reducation Measures
Risk Reduction Measures
The beneficial effect can be achieved both by preventing the start of the chain of events that might lead to adverse results (primary prevention), and, if already started, by interrupting the progression to more severe consequences (secondary prevention). Such are the cases of a favourable outcome with basic life support (BLS) in near-drowning, spine stabilization with spinal board and cervical collar in CVTs, successful application of automated external defibrillator (AED) in a situation of SD. Here follows a list of risk reduction measures:
Environmental Risk Factor Warnings
These warnings can be conveyed through:
||Boards, with beach safety signs and appropriate symbols;
||Buoys, to indicate the outer boundaries of the “swimmer area” or areas reserved for sailing or motor boats, to which access is prohibited;
||Safety flags, rapid means of communication, clearly visible to all, indicating unfavorable sea conditions and high winds: in particular, the red flag indicates dangerous swimming or lack of rescue service.
Surveillance is the lifeguard core activity and embodies the primary prevention activity in two ways: surveillance itself, i.e. careful visual observation of the BA; information on the BA risks, coupled with indications on behaviour to be taken or stopped.
Distressed people in water tend generally to struggle, trying to draw attention, before eventually going down. In these cases, to prevent drowning, there is no alternative for rescue but the direct intervention of the lifeguard.
Basic Life Support (BLS)
This can be defined as the sequence of observations and actions on the part of the lifeguard, to restore and maintain the main vital functions (breathing and blood circulation) of the rescued individual.
Emergency Aid Tools (EAT)
BLS procedures can be applied without any additional equipment. However, best results are achieved using devices aimed at more effective results and rescuer safety: pocket mask, disposable face-shield, AMBU bag, portable aspirator, portable oxygen cylinders, cervical collar, spinal board.
Advanced Life Support (ALS)
The lifeguard, as a professional rescuer, is integrated into the rescue chain with other professional operators, and with those of medical emergencies. He maintains the vital functions until their intervention, when re-assessment and, if needed, treatment continuation takes place, with more complex procedures and drug administration. The timeliness of emergency-trained nurse and doctor intervention is of paramount importance. Emergency vehicles (car, van, boat or helicopter) must access the BA within 20 minutes from call, this time being in Italy generally considered a standard.